Sarva Siksha Abhiyan is an Indian Government programme aimed at the universalization of elementary education “in a time bound manner”, as mandated by the 86th Amendment to the Constitution of India, making free and compulsory education to children between the ages of 6 to 14 is a fundamental right. The programme was pioneered by former Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

As an intervention programme, SSA has been operational since 2000-2001. However, its roots go back to 1993-1994, when the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched, with an aim of achieving the objective of universal primary education. DPEP, over several phases, covered 272 districts in 18 states of the country. The expenditure on the programme was shared by the Central Government (85%) and the State Governments (15%). The Central share was funded by a number of external agencies, including the World Bank, DFID and UNICEF. By 2001, more than US$1500 million had been committed to the programme and 50 million children covered in its ambit. In an impact assessment of Phase I of DPEP, the authors concluded that its net impact on minority children was impressive, while there was little evidence of any impact on the enrollment of girls. Nevertheless, they concluded that the investment in DPEP was not a waste, because it introduced a new approach to primary school interventions in India.

The Right to Education Act (RTE) came into force on 1 April 2010. Some educationists and policy makers believe that, with the passing of this act, SSA has acquired the necessary legal force for its implementation.

Role & Functionality of Dept

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a programme for Universal Elementary Education. This programme is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities to all children through provision of community -owned quality education in a mission mode. It is a response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country.

Main features

  1. Programme with a clear time frame for universal elementary education.
  2. A response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country.
  3. An opportunity for promoting social justice through basic education.
  4. An expression of political will for universal elementary education across the country.
  5. A partnership between the central, state and the local government.
  6. An opportunity for states to develop their own vision of elementary education.
  7. An effort at effective involving the Panchyati Raj Institutions, school management Committees, village and urban slum level Education Committees, Parent-Teacher Associations, Mother-Teacher Associations, Tribal Autonomous councils and other grassroot level structures in the management of elementary schools.


  1. To provide useful and elementary education for all children in the 6-14 age group.
  2. To bridge social, regional and gender gaps with the active participation of community in the management of schools.
  3. To allow children to learn about and master their natural environment in order to develop their potential both spiritually and materially.
  4. To inculcate value-based learning this allows children an opportunity to work for each other’s well being rather than to permit mere selfish pursuits.
  5. Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life.

Literacy rate in the District (as per 2011 census)

All Communities SC ST Minority
72.92 53.11 63.08 67.01 46.94 57.32 51.96 38.43 45.31 8.75 6.41 7.58


Source : Census (2011)

Highest Literacy Mandal:         Chirala (65.3%)

Lowest Literacy Mandal:          Tripuranthakam  (41.8%)

District at a Glance
Sl. No. Indicator Number
1 No.of Mandal Resource Centres 56
2 No.of Educational Divisions 5
3 No.of School Complexes / Cluster Resource Centres 342
4 No.of KGBVs 37
5 No.of Muncipalities:3 + No. of Muncipal Corporations: 1 4
6 No.of Villages 1094
7 No.of Panchayats 1028
8 No.of Mpl. Wards 129
9 No.of Habitations 2492
10 Density of population(as per Sq.Km) (Census 2011) 193
11 Sex Ratio (Census 2011) 981 : 971
12 Growth Rate of Population (Census 2011) 5 : 10
13 SC Population 787861
14 ST Population 151145
15 Minority Population 239429

Schemes being implemented

  1. Academic support to Teachers / Schools
  2. Community Mobilization Activities
  3. Alternative Schooling facility to Out of School Children (OSC)
  4. Inclusive Education to Children with Special Needs (CwSN)
  5. Infrastructure facilities to Schools
  6. Girl Child Development

Activities taken up

  1. Capacity building (Trainings) to Primary and Upper Primary school Teachers
  2. Providing Learning material and Library books to Upper Primary Schools
  3. Strengthening of School complexes for better monitoring
  4. D. Providing yearly grants to SMCs/CRCs/MRCs

Community Mobilization Activities

  1. Conduct of Enrolment Drives like Badibaata, Badipilustundi, Manavooru Mana badi programmes
  2. Elections and Strengthening of School Management Committees and Awareness meetings to SMC Members
  3. Providing Three Sets of Uniforms to1 to 8 class children, one pair of Black Shoes and two pairs of socks distribution.
  4. Awareness on Educational Activities and Kalajathas on RTE and SSA
  5. Media and Publicity
  6. Community Ownership & Support like Badi Runam Teerchukundam.
  7. UNICEF “ WASH ” IN SCHOOLS programme implementation.
  8. Awareness programmes at School and Mandal Level on MHM..

Alternative Schooling facility to Out of School Children (OSC)

  1. Survey for Identification of Out of School / Dropout children (OSC)
  2. Non Residential Special Training Centers (NRSTC) for short dropouts.
  3. Seasonal Hostels for children belongs to Migrant children
  4. Transport Facility to the children belongs to the remote school less habitations.

Inclusive Education to Children with Special Needs (CwSN) Children

  1. Survey for identification of CwSN.
  2. Special training for CwSN using appropriate TLM
  3. Running of Inclusive Education Resource Centers (IERCs) for CWSN.
  4. Supply of Aids and Appliances to the needy Children.
  5. Providing Physiotherapy camps to the eligible children
  6. Providing Speech Therapy to the eligible children
  7. Providing Transport Facility to the children attending NRSTCs
  8. Providing Escort Facility to the children attending Regular schools with the support of escort.
  9. Minor Corrective surgeries to the children in convergence with NGOs

Planning Wing

  1. Collecting information through Unified District Information System on Education (UDISE)
  2. Preparation of Annual Work Plan & Budget.
  3. Aadhar Seeding
  4. Establishment of CAL Centers
  5. Supply of Educational CDs

Infrastructure facilities to Schools

  1. Construction of Additional Class Rooms
  2. Construction of Boys Toilets, Separate Girls Toilets and CwSN Toilets.
  3. Providing Running water facility to Toilets.
  4. Providing Drinking Water Facility.
  5. Providing Major Repairs to Primary and Upper Primary Schools.
  6. Toilet Maintenance charges for cleaning of Toilets.

Girl Child Development

  1. Conduct of awareness camps on Child Marriages, Empowerment, Carrier guidance and Health & Hygiene.
  2. Establishing of schools for OSC, Orphans and Semi Orphan Girls – Kasturibha Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas (KGBVs).
  3. District Specific programme “Balika Telusuko” conducted under Girls Education intervention to create awareness among Adolescent Girls.District Specific programme “Balika Telusuko” conducted under Girls Education intervention to create awareness among Adolescent Girls